Sunday , May 16 2021

People with extreme political views 'can not tell when they are wrong', study finds



People with Radical political views, both on the left and the right, are less able to judge when they are incorrect, a study suggests.

Scientists at University College London found those on the political fringes tended to overestimate their certainty after getting questions wrong.

But the researchers did not test their knowledge of politics. Instead, they used a simple game in which participants had to gauge which picture they were presented with containing more dots.

Their study was a tentative measure of "metacognition" – the term for a person's ability to recognize when they are wrong.

They wanted to establish whether the dogmatic beliefs of political radicals were down to overconfidence in those specific opinions, or more general differences in metacognition.

In their study, the Scientists asked two groups of about 400 people to complete surveys measuring their political beliefs and attitudes towards alternative world views.

From these surveys they identified those at the extreme right and left ends of the Spectrum.

These individuals were characterized by Radical views about authoritarianism and intolerance towards others.

Participants were then asked to complete a simple task in which they looked at two pictures and judged which one had the most dots on it.

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Afterwards, they were asked to rate how confident they were in making their decisions, and the Scientists used cash Rewards to encourage them to judge their confidence accurately.

"We found that people who hold Radical political beliefs have worse metacognition than those with more moderate views," said lead author and neuroscientist Dr. Steve Fleming.

"They often have a Misplaced certainty when they're wrong about something, and are resistant to changing their beliefs in the face of evidence that proves them wrong."

To test how participants reacted to being proven wrong, they were shown a bonus set of dots that should have nudged them towards the correct decision.

For moderates who had made the wrong decision the first time, being shown this bonus information made them less confident in their choice. Radicals, on the other hand, held on their initial decision even after seeing evidence suggesting it was incorrect.

While the researchers were confident that their results were up to scrutiny, having replicated them in two sets of people, their task just explained some of the radicalism on show.

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"We suspect that this is because the task is completely unrelated to politics – people may be even more unwilling to admit to being wrong if politics has come into play," said PhD student Max Rollwage.

One conclusion they Drew from their study, published in the journal Current Biology, was that the failure of metacognition held true across the political Spectrum.

They said this Suggested radicalism was based on a way of thinking that "transcends political inclinations".


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