The Atacama Large Millimeter / Submilimeter Array (ALMA) technologies have discovered that two young stars that form the same circulating protoplanet disk may be twins – in the sense that they originate from the same source cloud. In addition, they have a bit of common ground.
The main star of this system, about 11,000 light years away from Earth, is really huge – full 40 times more than the sun. The other star recently found by ALMA in the center line of the disc is a relatively narrow eighty-one (1/80).
By their striking resemblance, they are formed by following two very different paths. The more massive star took on the more traditional route by pouring gravity away from the "core" of dense gas. Less likely to have followed the least traces of the stars – collecting mass from the part of the disk that "broke" away when it matured, a process that could have more to do with the emergence of gases and giant planets.
"Astronomers have long felt that the massive stars are rotating one or more stars as companions in a compact system, but how they have come there has been a matter of guessing," said Crystal Brogan (NRAO) at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, Virginia, and researcher. "With ALMA, we now have evidence that a gas and dust plate that covers and nourishes the growing massive stars also produces fragments at an early stage that can form a secondary star."
The main topic, known as MM 1a, has previously been identified as a young massive star surrounded by a gas and dust wafer. The weakly protostellar partner of this objective, MM 1b, was recently discovered with ALMA outside the MM 1a protoplanetron disk. The team believes that this is one of the first examples of fragmented disks that are identified around a massive young star.
"This ALMA discovery opens new questions, such as" Is the secondary star also a disk? "and" How fast does the secondary star grow? "ALMA's amazing thing is that we have not yet used our full powers in this area, which gives us the opportunity to respond to these new questions," said Todd Hunter, who is also with Charlottesville NRAO.
The stars form large gas and dust clouds in the interstellar space. When these clouds collapse under gravity, they begin to rotate faster, forming around the reel.
"Small clustered stars, like our sun, are about disks that can form planets," says in English from Leeds University at Astronomy John Ilee and leads the writer in the study. "In this case, the star and the disc that we have found are so massive that we see that the opposite star is not witnessing the planet on the disk."
By observing the naturally produced millimeter wavelength light and the slight changes in carbon gas at the radiation rate, scientists were able to calculate the mass of MM 1a and MM 1b.
Their work is published in Astrophysical Journal Letters.
"Many older, massive stars are found with close friends," added Ilee. "But binary stars are often very similar, and they are so likely to be formed together with siblings. Finding young binary systems with a 80-to-1 ratio is very unusual and suggests a completely different process of formation for both sites."
The recommended formation process for MM 1b takes place in the outer regions of cold massive plates. These "gravitationally unstable" plates are unable to withstand drawing pulling forces, plummeting into one or more parts.
Researchers point out that the recently discovered young star MM 1b could also be encircled by its own surrounding disk that may have its own planets – but it must be fast.
"Stars as massive as MM 1a live only about a million years before they explode as powerful supernovaes, so although MM 1b may have a chance to develop their own planetary system in the future, it will not be long", Ilee said.
Research report: "TG11.92-0.61 MM1: fragmented Kepler plate surrounding the proto-O residue", J. Ilee, 14.12.2018 Astrophysical Journal Letters
National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Stellar Chemistry, the universe and everything inside it
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