Mankind has been watching Marsi for centuries, dreaming about what might land on its dust-orange surface. Our telescopes improved, as did a picture of the red planet, though the interpretation of the researchers in this growing detail has not always been accurate (see Mars). The first mission center that successfully went to see Mars, Mariner 4, revealed a handful of unclear crater views, but sanctions – those who succeeded; the overall failure rate for Mars space-bound spacecraft is 50 percent bigger – painted a clearer picture of the dusty, dragon of the planet.
More recently, scientists have found evidence of a warmer, humid, ancient past on a planet that could have hosted the earth's life, so life prospecting continues, even though it extends to the past. And the planet has fewer tectonic material than the soil, so its makeup can tell scientists about the formation of the solar system.
NASA's InSight Mars operation set to touch on Monday (November 26th), Dig deep beneath the Earth's surface than any other mission that knows the interior of the planet. InSight is a smaller task than many of its predecessor roveries and orchestras, but it is the latest in the long line of robot ambassadors to explore our planet's neighbors. [Missions to Mars: A Robot Red Planet Invasion History (Infographic)]
"Mars is an incredibly natural laboratory right next to the Earth," said NASA's Lori Glaze, director of the planetary sciences division. "We really want to understand how we invented this complex rocky planets in our solar system – they are all very different, each one unique in its own way and trying to understand how they have come so different is a really important question."
In addition – despite the failure rate – the planet is comparatively easy to count and is less likely to melt our equipment than Venus or Mercury.
Mars's geology has a lot of evidence of past water, Glaze added, so "it could have been a place where life could have been at a very early stage in Mars's history and of course I try to understand how life is shared is one of the most important issues we have."
Time-capsule of early planets …
Earth, Mars, and other rocky planets in our solar system are lurking together from a dusty plate that surrounds the young sun, warms up and warms up when the material is added and melted into bodies with separate diapers and cores. However, we do not know much about the history of the planet.
"In Mars, this structure has survived in the last 4.5 billion years, while on Earth, where we can really study it fairly easily, this structure is bridged by both plate technology and shell convection, so evidence of the very earliest processes has been wiped off the planet," Bruce told Banerdt, Secretary General of InSight and NASA's California Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
So, as research on comet – the remainder of this formation process – is told to researchers on the earliest days of the solar system, studying the structure of Mars by measuring the planet's temperature and the marsupials can tell the scientists the next step in the evolution of the planets.
And knowing more about Mars's current circumstances can also help researchers understand what it could have been before. [Why We’re Obsessed with Mars]
… and in the early world
"Mars is a very unique place in our solar system, because it is one of the few other planets that, in fact, has truly been a planet Earth," said Purdue University's planetary researcher Briony Horga, who focuses on the geological history of the moon and Mars, Space.com said. "Today is this cold, unequal place with a very thin climate … low pressure, all the radiation that weighs the surface, but when we look at Mars's geological record, we see huge amounts of things like dried river rivers, dried lakes and lakes sediments, we see minerals all over the planet, which can only form in the presence of water. " [Water on Mars: Curiosity Rover Uncovers a Flood of Evidence]
March 3 or 4 billion years ago may have looked very much like the beginning of the Earth, Horgan said, and although our planet has resigned, platectonics and other processes have swept away rocks from that time, Mars offers another opportunity to see them.
"Mars geology has just been much less active to the extent that the globe is that the stones 4 billion years ago are just sitting," Horgan said. "They have not been buried, they have not been buried, they have not been weakened, they only sit there, we expect in principle that we look at them and try to understand what these old, 4 billion-year-old environments might have looked like, and they supported life."
Horgan is a scientist for NASA's upcoming Mars 2020 -rover travel, which was announced by the agency on November 19th. Mars 2020 Rover follows the 1976 twin Viking descendants 'footprints flying our red planet to search for life according to the researchers' best understanding of the planet's conditions and the Kuriosity Rover, who touched in 2012 to investigate Mars after having lived in the past.
As our vision of the planet evolves, Horgan's tools for life are also recalled – after Spirit and Opportunity Rovers presented evidence of the past, Curiosity brought a wide range of science tools to try to find organic or other evidence of eligibility near old beds. Mars 2020 builds on the ongoing work of Curiosity by introducing a more subtle analytical tool, Organic rocks of images by looking at microphages or textures that refer to ancient biology. Researchers still do not know that the flowing water was often on the surface or if it could have been mostly frozen by occasional volcanic melting.
"Some of the instruments for the year 2020 are really nil in the finer details of rocks, such things we do not currently see with instruments and cache samples that eventually, if returned to Earth, could provide us with long-term basic information," said John Grant, geologist Smithsonian An institution that has been in science teams with the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers, curiosity and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. He also guided the process of choosing the Mars 2020 landing site.
"InSight is a very important part of this, because none of them is [NASA’s previous missions] really – pun intended – scratches the surface under the surface of the planetary evolution and understands how the planet evolved over time, "Grant added.
"If we know something about its internal structure and evolution, we can say something about how long it has been active, whether it is active or not, and all of them have an impact on changing circumstances … in relation to things such as eligibility and existence of life "he told Space.com. So even though InSight does not directly handle Mars, "it's all woven," he added.
And, of course, as NASA's emerging plans finally send people to Mars, all we learn will help prepare for that moment.
"Yes, we will go back to the moon, but we are also on the way to Mars and science [helps] make sure we can understand the resources and study that we understand the circumstances of life and understand what needs to be investigated, "Thomas Zurbuchen, deputy head of NASA's Science Department, said during the announcement of the Mars 2020 landing site.
"That, I would have argued, is an extra over and over argument, why Mars is so exciting to us," he added. "We are not going to go anywhere else whenever our planet Earth's all-obvious Mars is really a clear place in the moon and expand our presence deeper and deeper."
So why are we going to march? Learn about our solar system, learn the beginning of the earth, find life, and explore the neighbor before we visit.
"Science drives our understanding and gives us the opportunity to get people to Mars," Glaze said at a news conference. "The more research we have, the better we understand the environment, the better we are preparing to send people to Mars in the future."