SpaceX wants to send astronauts to Mars. Billionaire Jeff Bezos at least on the moon. But what do they use there?
Almost 60 years have passed since the first flight of man to space, and not just space technologies, but also spacecraft that protect astronauts from leaving open space have improved considerably. No one wants his blood in his blood vessels to turn into gas before he can say anything about the small steps and great steps of man to mankind.
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NASA's first cosmetics were developed for the Mercury project, which aimed to get the Americans to orbit the planet and make sure they were alive and healthy. Indeed, the first cosmonauts had a hard time with them, and it took several years to break down the thermoregulation flaws – their suits were alternately sweating, completely freezing and unable to sleep. The second generation of cosmetics was developed for the Gemini project. They had to be much more flexible because they were prepared to climb into open space. The third generation suits are already designed for those who intended to conquer Apollo Moon.
They had to allow enough freedom of movement so that they could not walk but also bend and take samples. Directly into the body, astronauts had a water-cooled nylon shell, a multi-layered space suit. The base layer was a light nylon nylon of light nylon with ventilation holes coated to protect the layers below. Next, there were five layers of aluminised mylar woven together with four layers of additional dacron technical material. The double-layered Capton insulation has taken care of heat retention. This was followed by a non-flammable Teflon-coated fabric to prevent mechanical damage, and the last layer was pure white Teflon. Americans in this suit were running smoothly on the moon. Even though it weighed 111 kilograms with oxygen, it didn't mean much weight.
Another type of space suit was to develop a shuttle. Although almost all the former suits were silver or white, this time they chose the atypical orange. They just called him "pumpkin space spaces". This should protect the crew, especially when the accident starts or descends.
Nowadays, NASA is testing new types of spacecraft on its Advanced Spacesuit and Technology Labe devices, which should weigh only half, and above all, provide operators with almost complete freedom of movement – a basic requirement for their new generation. So far, preliminary tests have been done with prototypes known as the Z series. From a design perspective, they are certainly not conservative but not too aesthetic.
Private companies are more interested in the aesthetics of space suits. They should be designed not only for astronauts, but also for travelers who want to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars for the journey to the universe. Therefore, such a trip must look like an exhibition and space suits – in this case space suits – must respond to this. Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic Millionaire is simple – the journeys he plans are suborbital, the tourists stay on the spacecraft all the time, so they don't need pressurized spacecraft. It was enough to attach them to the Under Armor, which designed their first space collection for them. The suggestions at the time of writing this article are not yet known, but both companies intend to present this year.
The more complex task is to face Boeing and SpaceX. Both have an agreement with NASA that their modules not only provide the ISS space station, but can also carry astronauts there. Neither of them even tested the crew module. More specifically, SpaceX, a few weeks ago without a living crew, was successful, but it exploded in other tests that took place after its trouble-free return to earth. However, both companies are developing new pressurized volumes for their crew modules, which have to meet NASA's strictest safety standards.
Their space conditions should be able to protect passengers during inter-planetary flights, but they are not designed to protect them from extreme conditions, such as those on Mars. Therefore, "outfit" suits designed to move on the surface are large and large. They must have air that presses the body to act and protects it from the danger of vacuum.
Aerospace Engineering Systems Researchers led by Professor Dave J. Newman showed the problem differently. They decided to use the latest material to create a superelastic suit that is able to exert pressure on the muscles. The advantage of such a solution is unequivocal – in the case of mechanical damage to a pressurized space suit, its user will be fatal, must have access to the dismantling module or spacecraft as soon as possible. If mechanical damage to a flexible suit is enough, it is enough to repair the special tape and continue to move on the surface.
Such a suit is not easy to develop because it has to fit perfectly with the body and all its folds. A fully functional prototype was completed already in 2013. Its development continues, but it seems that the more traditional designed costumes, such as the design of astronauts today used by the astronauts to open up the international space to the space station.